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According to witnesses, Alabama fired 370 rounds at her adversary, averaging one round per minute per gun, a very fast rate of fire, while Kearsarge's gun crews fired less than half that number, taking more careful aim. 19th century print, depicting the sinking of Hatteras by CSS Alabama, off Galveston, Texas on 11 January 1863. The Confederate government had hoped that the panic of the shipping companies would force the Union to dispatch ships to protect merchant shipping and hunt down the raiders, a task which always requires a proportionately greater force when compared with the numbers of ships attacking (see Battle of the Atlantic). A little more than an hour after the first shot was fired, Alabama was reduced to a sinking wreck by Kearsarge's powerful 11-inch (280 mm) Dahlgrens, forcing Captain Semmes to strike his colors and to send one of his two surviving boats to Kearsarge to ask for assistance. She came upon and quickly sank the Union side-wheeler USS Hatteras just off the Texas coast, near Galveston, capturing that warship's crew. The first is a mounted and framed, 14-star ensign located at the Mariner's Museum in Virginia. While it could have been made aboard, its somewhat more accurate details suggest it might have been commissioned ashore during a port-of-call visit. All Royalty-Free licenses include global use rights, comprehensive protection, simple pricing with volume discounts available, Newspapers and magazines (except for covers), editorial broadcasts, documentaries, non-commercial websites, blogs and social media posts illustrating matters of public interest, Book or magazine covers, commercial, promotional, advertorial, endorsement, advertising, or merchandising purposes in any media (e.g. [citation needed]. Even after its sinking, she made legal history. No other rights or warranties are granted for comp use. Primarily a raider, the Alabama sank, burned or captured more than sixty Union merchants ships from 1862 to 1864. The Sinking of CSS Alabama during The Battle of Cherbourg, or the Battle off Cherbourg. An officer in the boat, seeing that Llewellyn was about to be left aboard the stricken Alabama, shouted "Doctor, we can make room for you." It was inherited by his grandchildren, Raphael Semmes III and Mrs. Eunice Semmes Thorington. The Sinking of CSS Alabama during The Battle of Cherbourg, or the Battle off Cherbourg. American Civil War. Her most telling shot, fired from the forward 7-inch (178 mm) Blakely pivot rifle, hit very near Kearsarge's vulnerable stern post, the impact binding the ship's rudder badly. All the men from Agrippina and Bahama had been transferred to the quarter deck of Enrica, where her 24 officers, some of them Southerners, stood in full dress uniform. USS Kearsarge, a Mohican class sloop of... Get premium, high resolution news photos at Getty Images All together, Alabama conducted a total of seven expeditionary raids, spanning the globe, before heading to France for refit and repairs: Upon the completion of her seven expeditionary raids, Alabama had been at sea for 534 days out of 657, never visiting a single Confederate port. His sacrifice did not go unrecognized. print, commercial broadcast, film, digital), Anyone in your organization can use it an unlimited number of times for up to 15 years, worldwide, with uncapped indemnification, {{formatPrice(size.discountPrice || size.price)}}. No need to register, buy now! The story of the CSS Alabama - the famous Confederate raider that wreaked havoc on the commerce of the north. During the battle, he steadfastly remained at his post in the wardroom tending the wounded until the order to abandon ship was finally given. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Coordinates: 49°45′09″N 1°41′42″W / 49.75250°N 1.69500°W / 49.75250; -1.69500, For similarly named ships, the southern U.S. state of Alabama, and other uses, see, Confederate Medal of Honor awarded for valor, Wilson, Walter E. and Gary L. McKay (2012). Single-ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, the USS Kearsarge, and a Confederate States Navy warship, the CSS Alabama, on June 19, 1864, off Cherbourg, France. Such presentations of ceremonial colors were uncommon to ships' captains of the Confederate Navy, but a few were known to have received such honors. Protect your creative work - we'll remove this image from our site for as long as you need it. Builder’s Model. Alabama was built in secrecy in 1862 by British shipbuilders John Laird Sons and Company, in north west England at their shipyards at Birkenhead, Wirral, opposite Liverpool. She is increasing speed in order to capture the Sea Bride before she can escape to within one league of S.African territorial waters. I have the honor to be Your obedient servant, R. Semmes, Captain. During the confusion of battle, five more rounds were fired at Alabama after her colors were struck. She alone accounted for as much as $5 million in … Sinking of the CSS Alabama This 1922 painting by Xanthus Smith depicts the last moments of the firefight between the USS Kearsarge , right, and the CSS Alabama, which was sunk in the English Channel on June 19, 1864. Semmes arrived at Terceira Island on 20 August 1862 and began overseeing the refitting of the new vessel with various provisions, including armaments, and 350 tons of coal, brought there by Agrippina, his new ship's supply vessel. Upon completion of the reading, musicians that assembled from among the three ships' crews began to play the tune "Dixie" just as the quartermaster finished hauling down Enrica's British colors. While this ensign is in a remarkable state of preservation, its large size and delicate condition have made its up-close details and measurements unavailable. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. [4] Union Captain Tunis A. M. Craven, commander of USS Tuscarora, was in Southampton and was tasked with intercepting the new ship, but was unsuccessful. The 1999 investigations are organized and carried out under the joint leadership of Association CSS Alabama and the CSS Alabama Association. Download this stock image: The sinking of CSS Alabama at the Battle of Cherbourg in 1864. The practice of using primary and secondary naval flags after the British tradition was common practice for the Confederacy, linked as she was by both heritage and economy to the British Isles. In fact, with clever utilization of resources and a mammoth shipbuilding program, the Union managed to steadily increase the blockade throughout the war. She boarded nearly 450 vessels, captured or burned 65 Union merchant ships, and took more than 2,000 prisoners without a single loss of life from either prisoners or her own crew. A hit to her engine or boilers could easily leave Kearsarge dead in the water and vulnerable, or even cause a boiler explosion or fire that could destroy the cruiser. Via the CSS Alabama Assoc A fourth surviving ensign appears, from various clues observed in on-line photos, to be roughly 36 in × 54 in (91 cm × 137 cm). Her chain armor was concealed behind 1-inch deal-boards painted black to match the upper hull's color. Landing and paroling the Union prisoners, he … Kearsarge was the only ship of the United States Navy named for Mount Kearsarge in New Hampshire.Subsequent ships were … She was sunk in June 1864 by USS Kearsarge at the Battle of Cherbourg outside the port of Cherbourg, France. The Alabama Department of Archives and History has in its collection one more important Stainless Banner ensign listed as "Admiral Semmes' Flag, Catalogue No. Under prevailing British neutrality law, it was pos… It was made using 120 fathoms (720 ft; 220 m) of 1.7-inch (43 mm) single link iron chain and covered hull spaces 49 feet 6 inches (15.09 m) long by 6 feet 2 inches (1.88 m) deep. CSS Alabama destroyed or captured dozens of Union merchant vessels during her Atlantic cruises, when word of Alabama ' s sinking reached the northeastern United States, many Northerners were joyful. This official-looking 25.5 in × 41 in (65 cm × 104 cm) ensign is marked in brown pigment on its hoist: "Alabama. In 2007 it was offered and sold through Philip Weiss Auctions. Alabama Artifacts Exhibit at U.S. (Her gun ports had been left open and the broadside cannon were still run out, appearing to come to bear on Kearsarge.) It was stopped up and down to eye-bolts with marlines and secured by iron dogs. However, unless a license is purchased, content cannot be used in any final materials or any publicly available materials. Please carefully review any restrictions accompanying the Licensed Material on the Getty Images website, and contact your Getty Images representative if you have a question about them. Semmes knew he had closed the deal: 83 seamen, many of them British, signed on for service in the Confederate Navy. Content marked “Editorial use only” may not be used for any commercial or promotional purposes. USS Kearsarge, a Mohican-class sloop-of-war, is best known for her defeat of the Confederate commerce raider CSS Alabama during the American Civil War. A central white star, located where the two blue saltieres' cross, is larger than the surrounding twelve stars. Single-ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, the USS Kearsarge, and a Confederate States Navy warship, the CSS Alabama, on June 19, 1864, off Cherbourg, France. She then sailed south, arriving in the West Indies where she raised more havoc before finally cruising west into the Gulf of Mexico. By mid-autumn the name Alabama had begun to terrify Union-based ship owners. The scene depicts the heavily damaged and sinking ALABAMA … CSS Alabama Continues to Yield Insights to 19th Century Life at Sea (Sextant Blog, 2014) At the suggestion of retired Rear Admiral Beverly M. Coleman, Sawtell donated it to the State of Alabama on 3 June 1975. According to survivors, the two ships steamed on opposite courses in seven spiraling circles, moving southwesterly with the 3-knot current, each commander trying to cross the bow of his opponent to deliver a heavy raking fire (to "cross the T"). It seems plausible this was Alabama's original 7-star battle ensign, possibly flown aboard CSS Sumter as noted earlier, and later altered at some point when the long-delayed news of an 8th state joining the Confederacy finally reached the far distant cruiser. [12][13][14] She then sailed for the East Indies, where she spent six months destroying seven more ships before finally redoubling the Cape of Good Hope en route to France. [citation needed]. But even the ship’s unparalleled success had its Waterloo, and for the Confederate commerce raider, that was Cherbourg, France, 150 years ago today. No need to register, buy now! With Bulloch at his side, the new ship's captain, Raphael Semmes, left Liverpool on 13 August 1862 aboard the steamer Bahama to take command of the new cruiser. Without a license, no further use can be made, such as: Because collections are continually updated, Getty Images cannot guarantee that any particular item will be available until time of licensing. A second "Stars and Bars" battle ensign is on display at the Pensacola Historical Museum. Semmes had managed to elude Federal warships sent to … For nearly two years, CSS Alabama roamed the world’s seas. USS Kearsage finally caught up as CSS Alabama was being repaired in France, and USS Kearsages iron armour allowed her to sink CSS Alabama in the resulting battle. This account has reached the download cap, additional downloads subject to agreement overage terms. The Confederate cruiser claimed 65 prizes valued at nearly $6,000,000 (approximately $123,000,000 in today's dollars[citation needed]); in 1862 alone 28 were claimed. Semmes had only his 24 officers and no crew to man his new command. Semmes still needed another 20 or so men for a full crew complement, but enough had signed on to at least handle the new commerce raider. ", Roberts, Arthur C., M. D. "Reconstructing USS. The British yacht Deerhound rescued Semmes and 40 others. 86.1893.1 (PN10149-10150)." Both of the British Royal Navy pattern 32-pounders were identified: One lies inside the starboard hull, forward of the boilers, adjacent to the forward Downton pump. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 08:55. A second Stainless Banner ensign of South African origin was made and then presented to Alabama on one of her two port visits to Cape Town; it resides in the Tennessee State Museum, according to their website. Single-ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, the USS Kearsarge, and a Confederate States Navy warship, the CSS Alabama, on June 19, 1864, off Cherbourg, France. The Blakely 7-inch 100-pounder was found beside its pivot carriage, atop the forward starboard boiler; this was the first cannon recovered from Alabama. One of the Blakely pattern 32-pounders was found lying across the starboard side of the hull, forward of the boilers. On 3 October 1989 the USA and France signed an agreement recognizing this wreck as an important heritage resource of both nations and establishing a Joint French-American Scientific Committee for archaeological exploration. Kearsarge now had Alabama boxed in with no place left to run. Initially known only by her shipyard number "hull number 290", the ship was launched as Enrica on 15 May 1862 and secretly slipped out of Birkenhead on 29 July 1862. The Sinking of CSS Alabama during The Battle of Cherbourg, or the Battle off Cherbourg. The Kearsage sunk the Alabama just off the French coast at Cherbourg. As Kearsarge turned to meet her opponent, Alabama opened fire. The most successful and feared Confederate commerce raider of the war, the CSS Alabama, sinks after a spectacular battle off the coast of France with the … Battle of Cherbourg Background. The CSS Alabama saw 21 of her crew wounded in the fighting with the Kearsarge though 9 crew were killed (according to the official record by Captain Semmes sent on June 21st, 1864 from Southampton to Flag Officer Samuel Barron … During her two-year career as a commerce raider, Alabama caused disorder and devastation across the globe for Union merchant shipping. The Battle of Cherbourg or the Sinking of CSS Alabama, was a single ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, the USS Kearsarge, and a Confederate States Navy warship, the CSS Alabama, on June 19, 1864, off Cherbourg, France. One such early "Stars and Bars" battle ensign was salvaged from Alabama's floating debris, following her sinking by Kearsarge. In 2002, a diving expedition raised the ship's bell along with more than 300 other artifacts, including more cannons, structural samples, tableware, ornate commodes, and numerous other items that reveal much about life aboard the Confederate warship. The Sinking of CSS Alabama during The Battle of Cherbourg, or the Battle off Cherbourg. Single-ship action fought during the American Civil War between a United States Navy warship, the USS Kearsarge, and a Confederate States Navy warship, the CSS Alabama, on June 19, 1864, off Cherbourg, France. Of the original 83 crewmen that signed on that day, many completed the full voyage. Seven cannon were identified at the wreck site: Two were cast from a British Royal Navy pattern and three were of a later pattern produced by Fawcett, Preston, and Company in Liverpool. This vessel, one of the most successful raiders of all time, was significant from many aspects. Sinking of the CSS Alabama Ships Captain's After Action Reports. This ensign has since been mounted and framed and continues to reside with the Brooks family; four modern photos of it can be found at the website for the "Alabama Crew," a British-based naval reenactor group. Its canton contains a circle of 12 stars surrounding a centered, larger 13th star. While the sinking of Alabama did not affect the outcome of the Civil War, her loss was a blow to Confederate morale. (Photo by Culture Club/Getty Images). Sinking of the CSS Alabama Ships Captain's After Action Reports. Union warships hunted frequently for the elusive and by now famous Confederate raider, but the few times Alabama was spotted, she quickly outwitted her pursuers and vanished over the horizon. One ball from Alabama lodged in Kearsarge’s sternpost, but failed to explode. The following assets contain unreleased and/or restricted content. Sinking Legal Ramifications. This battle ensign's overall dimensions are different from the Confederate flag regulations' required 2:3 ratio. Ironically, in 1851, a decade before the Civil War, Captain Semmes had observed: (Commerce raiders) are little better than licensed pirates; and it behooves all civilized nations [...] to suppress the practice altogether. "James D. Bulloch; Secret Agent and Mastermind of the Confederate Navy". In light of this loophole, Alabama was built with reinforced decks for cannon emplacements, ammunition magazines below water-level, etc., but the builder stopped short of fitting her out with armaments or any "warlike equipment". Your Easy-access (EZA) account allows those in your organization to download content for the following uses: It overrides the standard online composite license for still images and video on the Getty Images website. As Alabama sank, the injured Semmes threw his sword into the sea, depriving Kearsarge's commander Captain John Ancrum Winslow of the traditional surrender ceremony of having it handed over to him as victor (an act which was seen as dishonorable by many at the time). The CSS Alabama and its Captain, Rafael Semmes, were a source of inspiration to the people and soldiers of the Confederacy. With the Union ship sinking, Semmes' took the crew aboard and departed the area. Remember the alabama! Llewellyn, understanding that the man risked capsizing the craft, grabbed and pulled him back, saying "See, I want to save my life as much as you do; but let the wounded men be saved first." Scarcely had the longboat pulled away from Hatteras than a new reply to Blake's question rang through the night. Oct 5, 2020 - Model of the Confederate Raider CSS Alabama completed in the summer of 2014. CSS Alabama was a screw sloop-of-war built in 1862 for the Confederate States Navy at Birkenhead on the River Mersey opposite Liverpool, England by John Laird Sons and Company. U. S. S. KEARSARGE, English Channel, July 30, 1864 . Of her 170 crew, the Alabama had 19 fatalities (9 killed and 10 drowned) and 21 wounded[19] Kearsarge rescued the majority of the survivors, but 41 of Alabama's officers and crew, including Semmes, were rescued by John Lancaster's private British steam yacht Deerhound, while Kearsarge stood off to recover her rescue boats as Alabama sank. A second Blakely 32-pounder was identified outside the hull structure, immediately forward of the propeller and its lifting frame; the forward 32-pounder was recovered in 2000. During her two-year career as a commerce raider, Alabama damaged Union merchant shipping around the world. "James D. Bulloch; Secret Agent and Mastermind of the Confederate Navy". He offered signing money and double wages, paid in gold, and additional prize money to be paid by the Confederate congress for all destroyed Union ships. Hear!" [20] Captain Winslow was forced to stand by helplessly and watch Deerhound spirit away to England his much sought-after adversary, Captain Semmes, and his surviving shipmates. You have view only access under this Premium Access agreement. Related Questions. Two shot were recovered, and one conical projectile was inside the barrel of the 7-inch Blakely rifle. This Second National Flag is huge and made of pure silk, giving it an elegant appearance. The IBM strategic repository for digital assets such as images and videos is located at dam.ibm.com. After a difficult Atlantic crossing, she then continued her path of destruction and devastation in the greater New England region. Kyle, Douglas E. and Hoover, Mildred Brooke (1990). Kearsarge. After five successful commerce raiding missions in the Atlantic Ocean, CSS Alabama … Such ended the glorious tenure of the CSS Alabama - a true raider by all accounts, sinking millions of dollars in Union property over the course of her short career. Having no desire to see his worn-out ship rot away at a French dock while quarantined by Union warships and given his instinctive aggressiveness and a long-held desire once again to engage his enemy, Captain Semmes chose to fight. CSS Alabama had captured or destroyed dozens of Union merchant ships, but had been pursued by USS Kearsage for two years. 86.3766.1." pp. Had those rounds come from Alabama's more powerful 100-pounder Blakely pivot rifle, they would have easily penetrated, but the likely result would not have been very serious, as both shots struck the hull a little more than five feet above the waterline. The contract was arranged through the Fraser Trenholm Company, a cotton broker in Liverpool with ties to the Confederacy. Naval Museum opens with All-Star Franco-American Reception", "Archaeological Investigation of the Confederate Commerce Raider CSS Alabama 2002", "CSS Alabama (1862-1864) - Selected Views", http://css-alabama.com.s3-website-us-east-1.amazonaws.com/crew.html, "Church of the Holy Trinity, Easton Royal (1364554)", "épave de l'Alabama / wreck of the Alabama/ Cherbourg 1864", "South African Scout Campfire songbook: South African songs", Shipwrecks and maritime incidents in 1864, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=CSS_Alabama&oldid=992827194, Articles lacking reliable references from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, Articles needing additional references from November 2015, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from December 2018, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "Aide Toi, Et Dieu T'Aidera," (God helps those who help themselves), 6 × 32 lb (15 kg) cannons, 1 × 110 lb (50 kg) cannon, 1 × 68 lb (31 kg) cannon, List of Officers Of The Confederate States Steamer, Delaney, Norman C. "'Old Beeswax': Raphael Semmes of the Alabama. Tablet was placed in Charing Cross Hospital, London, where he attended school. But failed to explode to elude Federal warships sent to … the sinking of CSS Alabama had to. Even if both shots had penetrated Kearsarge 's steering, possibly sinking the warship, editorial. Kearsage for two years, CSS Alabama at the Mariner 's Museum in Virginia underneath debris! The sole remaining 32-pounder has not been positively identified, but had been pursued by USS Kearsage for two.... Was presented to Semmes after the sinking of Alabama 's floating debris following! To finalize your project with the material you downloaded from your EZA account, you need to secure license. Dr. Llewellyn, a Briton, was much loved and respected by the Kieserge years CSS. Until the range decreased Kearsarge off the French coast at Cherbourg this image. The artifacts are now housed in the West Indies where she continued path., additional downloads subject to agreement overage terms during the Battle of Cherbourg in 1864 after. Raiders of all time, was significant from many aspects caused by her British crew sometime between Alabama stern. To their respective ships for their return voyage to England licenses come in the largest available... Nephew, Clement Sawtell of Lincoln Square, Massachusetts, later inherited the ensign the! Recovered in 2001 and sold through Philip Weiss Auctions $ 15.5 million in damages hull debris forward the. Secured by iron dogs Mildred Brooke ( 1990 ) images and video clips and drowned... Dozens of Union merchant ships, but it could be rotated to fire as the range closed! Six more Southern States seceded and joined the Confederacy from England, he brought this ceremonial Stainless Banner is of! Stainless Banner with him the southwestern African coast where she continued her path of and... 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